“Vendor Everything” Still Applies
UPDATE: Since writing this post, I have since switched to using rbenv for my ruby version management. I no longer use RVM. Rbenv lends itself nicely to the workflow described here, and some of the workflow below has been modified to reflect that. RVM instructions are still included though.
As a consultant, I jump between a lot of different Ruby projects from day to day. Some are my own; some are owned by others. Some are greenfield; some are legacy. Sometimes, I’m the sole developer; sometimes, I’m working with a team.
There’s nothing more frustrating than jumping on an existing project only to fall into dependency hell when your first goal is just a passing test suite. Dependencies can be quite difficult to manage, and fortunately, we have some great tools like Bundler and rbenv to help out. The problem, however, is that we as a community have not fully standardized on the best set of conventions surrounding these tools.
Disclaimer: The set of conventions described here apply to Ruby applications only. This includes Rails apps, Sinatra apps, or other Ruby applications that aren’t deployed in the form of a gem.
Do Check Your
.ruby-version into Version Control
.ruby-versionfile is an important piece of documentation.
For applications, your
.ruby-version file is an important piece of documentation. I think this is the best way to communicate the Ruby version dependency to other team members. This is especially true given that these files at the root of your project will make rbenv or RVM automatically use that version of Ruby when you’re in that project directory.
I recently inherited a project that had a test suite with very little coverage and no documentation as to which version of Ruby was required. I could tell the project wasn’t on Ruby 1.9 yet, so I guessed at Ruby 1.8.7. It wasn’t until much later that I realized Ruby 1.8.6 was actually required. For another legacy project that I worked on, we guessed correctly at Ruby 1.8.7, but it wasn’t until we went to deploy and took a look at the production environment that we realized we should have been developing against Ruby Enterprise Edition (REE) instead of MRI.
Note: When this post was first written, I advocated checking in your
.rvmrc file, because at the time, that was the only way to specify your ruby version. That was controversial, because an
.rvmrc could potentially contain personal preferences (that I didn’t think belonged in that file). Things have changed, and
.ruby-version is the way to go regardless of your chosen ruby version manager.
Stop Using RVM Gemsets For Your Applications
Please stop using RVM gemsets for your applications. Seriously. The original title of this post was going to be, “RVM Gemsets are overrated,” but that seemed too much like flamebait, and I didn’t want anyone to miscontrue my overall point.
RVM is absolutely one of the best things that has hit the Ruby community in recent history, and RVM gemsets are a great tool. It’s just that I see too many applications rely on the use of gemsets when it yields no added benefit. I understand why people do it; they don’t want to pollute their default gemset, but this reliance on gemsets for applications is totally unnecessary. It also seems to be a common point of confusion amongst teams.
There is a better way, that still doesn’t pollute the default gemset, and it includes a lesser known feature of Bundler.
Let Bundler Follow the
Bundler alleviates the need for different gemsets per project.
It is possible to install application dependencies cleanly without relying on an RVM gemset. I like to install all application dependencies into a gitignored directory within the application itself. This not only alleviates the need for different gemsets per project, but it also gives us a quick and easy way to jump into the source code of any one of our gem dependencies. We can do this with the
--path option passed to
bundle install. Here’s the convention I like to use:
$ bundle install --path vendor $ echo 'vendor/ruby' >> .gitignore
After running this, all gems (and gems pulled directly from git repositories) will be unpacked into the
vendor/ruby directory of your project. It’s a good idea to ignore this directory from version control.
This one step removes the need to create a custom RVM gemset for any of your applications, and it ensures that your default gemset is never polluted by application dependencies. This way, Bundler completely isolates the gems from the system, guaranteeing a clear set of dependencies.
Package Your Gems in
For applications, I cannot emphasize enough how beneficial it is to keep all of your gem dependencies with your application. I’m not just talking about a
Gemfile.lock**, but I’m also talking about the gems themselves. Bundler allows you to save all of your gems in a
vendor/cache directory after running
bundle package. It ensures the gems are available without having to sync with a gem server.
$ bundle package
I’ve seen resistance to this practice, but the only arguments against it usually refer to taking up too much space in version control. That argument is poppycock. Storage is cheap. You’ll thank me later when your deployments run smoothly, and when several years from now, an otherwise missing gem is at your fingertips. Not to mention, having all your gems in
install run faster both for new team members and in your continuous integration environment. Deployment environments like Heroku really benefit from this practice too.
** By the way, for applications, please do check your
Gemfile.lock into version control.
How Can I Remember All of This?
Here are some command line aliases that help me:
alias b="bundle" alias bi="b install --path vendor" alias bil="bi --local" alias bu="b update" alias be="b exec" alias binit="bi && b package && echo 'vendor/ruby' >> .gitignore"
Any time I jump into a new project that already has a Gemfile, I merely need to run
bi and the gems are installed in an application specific location (
vendor/ruby) without the need for a custom RVM gemset. Anytime I’m starting a new project or trying to convert an old project to these new conventions, I just run
binit, which installs and packages the gems within the application while also gitignoring the
- Check your
.ruby-versionfile into version control; it’s a form of documentation.
- Avoid RVM gemsets for your applications; Bundler solves the same problem in a better way (
bundle install --path vendor).
- Keep a cache of your gem dependencies in version control using
- This only applies to Ruby applications; gem development is a different beast.
$ bundle install --path vendor $ bundle package $ echo 'vendor/ruby' >> .gitignore